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American Megatrends 686B Driver

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American Megatrends 686B Driver

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October Learn how and when to remove American Megatrends 686B template message The environment for the boot program is very simple: CS is always zero and IP is American Megatrends 686B 0x7C Because boot programs are always loaded at this fixed address, there is no need for a boot program to be relocatable. DL may contain the drive number, as used with INT 13h, of the boot device.

SP points to a valid stack that is presumably large enough to support hardware interrupts, but otherwise SS and SP are undefined.

A stack must be already set up in order for interrupts to be serviced, and interrupts must be enabled in order for the system timer-tick interrupt, which BIOS always uses at least to maintain the time-of-day count and which it initializes American Megatrends 686B POST, to be active and for the keyboard to work. The keyboard works even if the BIOS keyboard service is not called; keystrokes are received and placed in the character type-ahead buffer maintained by BIOS.

The boot program must set up its own stack, because the size of the stack set up by BIOS is unknown and its location is likewise variable; although the boot program American Megatrends 686B investigate the default stack by examining SS: SP, it is easier and shorter to just unconditionally set up a new stack.

American Megatrends 686B boot time, all BIOS services are available, and the memory below address 0x contains the interrupt vector table. DRAM refresh for all system DRAM in conventional memory and extended memory, but not necessarily expanded memory, has been set up and is running. All memory at and above address 0x can be used by American Megatrends 686B boot program; it may even overwrite itself.

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Code in these extensions runs before the BIOS boots the system from mass storage. An extension ROM could American Megatrends 686B principle contain an entire operating system or an application program, or it could implement an entirely different boot process such as booting from a network. The motherboard BIOS typically contains code to access hardware components necessary for bootstrapping the system, such as the keyboard, display, and storage.

Even devices built into the motherboard can behave in this way; American Megatrends 686B option ROMs can be stored as separate code on the main BIOS flash chipand upgraded either in tandem with, or separately from, the main BIOS.

An add-in card requires an option American Megatrends 686B if the card is not supported by the main BIOS and the card needs to be initialized or made accessible through BIOS services before the operating system can be loaded usually this means it is required in the bootstrapping process. Also, if the ROM is on the card, both the peripheral hardware and the driver software provided by the ROM are installed together with no extra effort to install the software.


Then it can replace the BIOS boot process with one of its own, or it can merely modify American Megatrends 686B boot sequence by inserting its own boot actions into it, by preventing the BIOS from detecting certain devices as bootable, or both. In a valid expansion ROM, this signature is followed by a single byte indicating the number of byte blocks the expansion ROM occupies in real memory, and the next byte is the option ROM's entry point also known as its "entry offset".

A checksum of the specified number of byte blocks is calculated, and if the ROM has a valid checksum, the BIOS transfers control to the entry address, which in a normal BIOS extension ROM should be the beginning of American Megatrends 686B extension's initialization routine.


At this point, the extension ROM code takes over, typically testing and initializing the hardware it controls and registering interrupt vectors for use by post-boot applications. It may use BIOS services including those provided by previously initialized option ROMs to provide a user American Megatrends 686B interface, to display diagnostic information, or to do anything else that it requires.

Physical placement[ edit ] Option ROMs normally reside on adapter cards. Operating system services[ edit ] The BIOS ROM is customized to the particular manufacturer's hardware, allowing low-level services such as reading a keystroke or writing a American Megatrends 686B of data to diskette American Megatrends 686B be provided in a standardized way to programs, including operating systems.

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For American Megatrends 686B, an IBM PC might have either a monochrome or a color display adapter using different display memory addresses and hardwarebut a single, standard, BIOS system call may be invoked to display a character at a specified position on the screen in text mode or graphics mode. Operating systems and executive software that are designed to supersede this basic firmware American Megatrends 686B provide replacement software interfaces to application software. Applications can also provide these services to themselves.

To increase the speed of screen output, many programs bypassed the BIOS and programmed the video display hardware directly. Other graphics programmers, particularly but not exclusively in the demosceneobserved that there were technical capabilities of the PC display adapters that were not supported by the IBM BIOS and could not be taken advantage of without circumventing it.


Since the AT-compatible BIOS ran in Intel real modeoperating systems that ran in protected mode on and later American Megatrends 686B required hardware device drivers compatible with protected mode operation to replace BIOS services. In modern personal computers running modern operating systems the BIOS is used only during booting and initial loading of system software.

Before the operating system's first graphical American Megatrends 686B is displayed, input and output are typically handled through BIOS. A boot menu such as the textual menu of Windows, which allows users to choose an operating system to boot, to boot into the safe mode, or to use the last known good configuration, is displayed through BIOS and receives keyboard input through BIOS.

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Processor microcode updates[ edit American Megatrends 686B Intel processors have reprogrammable microcode since the P6 microarchitecture. Without reprogrammable microcode, an expensive processor swap would be required; [18] for example, the Pentium FDIV bug became an expensive fiasco for Intel as it required a product recall because the original Pentium processor's defective microcode could not be reprogrammed.


Cracks for American Megatrends 686B Windows distributions usually edit the SLIC or emulate it in order to bypass Windows activation. Overclocking may, however, seriously compromise system reliability in insufficiently cooled computers and generally shorten component lifespan. Overclocking, when incorrectly performed, may also cause components to overheat so quickly that they mechanically destroy themselves.

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